In -dimensional Euclidean space, the Minkowski functionals can be defined by the Steiner formula [1]. Given a convex body , i.e., a compact, convex subset of , the parallel body at a distance is the set of all points for which there is a point in such that the distance between and is smaller or equal to . The volume of this parallel body can be expressed by a polynomial of

where and the coefficients depend on but not on . The so-called Minkowski functionals can be generalized to finite unions of convex bodies, so that

This is the additivity property [1]. By this choice of normalization, the zeroth order Minkowski functional of an -dimensional unit ball is equal to its volume , and the higher-order Minkowski functionals are equal to its surface area (). In the mathematical literature the intrinsic volumes are more commonly used than the Minkowski functionals, but only differ by a proportionality constant and the order of the indices

The Minkowski tensors of a convex body in the -dimensional Euclidean space can be defined using the so-called support measures [1], which can in turn be defined by a local Steiner formula. Their total mass yields the intrinsic volumes, that is . Like the scalar functionals, the tensors can be generalized to non-convex bodies by using their additivity [1]. For consistency with the Minkowski functionals, we use for a different normalization . The Minkowski tensors are then defined as [1,2]

where or are symmetric tensor products, and is the symmetric tensor product of the tensors and .

[1] Schneider, R., Weil, W.: Stochastic and Integral Geometry (Probability and Its Applications). Springer, Berlin (2008)

[2] McMullen, P.: Isometry covariant valuations on convex bodies. Rend. Circ. Mat. Palermo (2) Suppl. 50, 259 (1997)

[3] Klatt et al.: Cell Shape Analysis of Random Tessellations Based on Minkowski Tensors. In Tensor Valuations and Their Applications in Stochastic Geometry and Imaging (eds. Vedel Jensen, E. B. & Kiderlen, M.) 2177**,** 385-421 (Springer International Publishing, 2017)